Detection of human papillomavirus in bronchoalveolar lavage samples in immunocompetent children
Mammas, Ioannis N.
Spandidos, Demetrios A.
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BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been detected in lungs of adults and has been proposed to play a role in lung carcinogenesis. However, no data are currently available on the incidence of HPV in the lower respiratory tract of children. PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of HPV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were obtained from asymptomatic immunocompetent children. METHODS: A total of 71 children between 2 and 12 years of age were prospectively enrolled. Detection of HPV DNA and HPV typing were performed using polymerase chain reaction-based techniques. RESULTS: Of the 71 BAL samples, HPV DNA was detected in 6 children. Coinfection with HPV 16, 18, and 31 was detected in 2 children, while 4 children were positive for non-"high-risk" HPVs. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary case-control study indicates the presence of HPV DNA in BAL samples in children. The possible presence of HPV in the lower respiratory tract of children requires further investigation to elucidate the actual epidemiologic condition, the potential modes of its transmission, and its possible causative relationship in lung carcinogenesis in adulthood.