Vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV): Epidemiological evidence of HPV in non-genital cancers
Mammas, Ioannis N.
Spandidos, Demetrios A.
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Recently, the vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) was introduced in the national vaccination programmes of several countries worldwide. The established association between HPV and the progression of cervical neoplasia provides evidence of the expected protection of the vaccine against cervical cancer. During the last two decades several studies have also examined the possible involvement of HPV in non-genital cancers and have proposed the presence of HPV in oesophageal, laryngeal, oropharyngeal, lung, urothelial, breast and colon cancers. The possible involvement of HPV in these types of cancer would necessitate the introduction of the vaccine in both boys and girls. However, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of these types of cancer has yet to be proven. Moreover, the controversial evidence of the possible impact of the vaccination against HPV in the prevention of non-genital cancers needs to be further evaluated. In this review, we present an overview of the existing epidemiological evidence regarding the detection of HPV in non-genital cancers.