Can 'high-risk' human papillomaviruses (HPVs) be detected in human breast milk?
Mammas, Ioannis N.
Theodoridou, Maria C.
Spandidos, Demetrios A.
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Aim: Human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission via nonsexual modes in childhood has been proposed by several researchers. The aim of our study was to determine the presence of 'high-risk' HPV DNA in human breast milk. Methods: Using polymerase chain reaction techniques, we evaluated the presence of HPV infection in human breast milk collected from 21 HPV-positive and 11 HPV-negative mothers. Results: Of the 32 studied human milk specimens, no 'high-risk' HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58 or 58 DNA was detected. Conclusion: This preliminary case-control study indicates the absence of mucosal 'high-risk' HPV types in human breast milk.