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dc.contributor.authorZaravinos, Apostolos
dc.contributor.authorChatziioannou, Maria N.
dc.contributor.authorLambrou, George I.
dc.contributor.authorBoulalas, Ioannis
dc.contributor.authorDelakas, Dimitrios S.
dc.contributor.authorSpandidos, Demetrios A.
dc.identifier.otherPubMed ID: 20853079
dc.description.abstractRKIP has been shown to regulate the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK kinase cascade acting as modulator of apoptosis and metastasis in prostate cancer. Our goal was to examine the expression ofthe RAF(A-RAF, B-RAF and RAF-1) and RKIP genes in urinary bladder cancer. Microarray analysis and qPCR was employed to investigate the expression of RAF and RKIP, in 30 patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder vs. the corresponding levels of adjacent normal tissue. Computational analysis was also performed on Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets, to unravel differences in the expression of RAF or RKIP between tumor and control samples, and between superficial and muscle invasive tumors. Microarray analysis revealed >2-fold expression of BRAF and RKIP in T2, T3, grade III tumors vs. controls. B-RAF over-expression was verified by qPCR in pT1, grade III tumors vs. their normal counterparts (p=0.016). qPCR revealed a significant RKIP reduction in TCC vs. normal tissue (p=0.002 and p<0.001 for T1, grade II and Ta-T1, grade III, respectively); All RAF genes were positively correlated among each other (A-RAF/B-RAF, p= 0.003; A-RAF/RAF-1, p<0.001; B-RAF/RAF-1, p=0.050), whereas B-RAF was negatively correlated with RKIP in TCC (p=0.050). Further computational analysis revealed different expression profiles for the genes of interest, among muscle invasive carcinomas, superficial TCCs, cystectomy specimens and normal tissue. The reduced RKIP mRNA levels in TCC and the elevated levels of B-RAF in pT1, grade III tumors vs. normal tissue, corroborate that these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder cancer.
dc.relation.ispartofPathology and Oncology Research
dc.titleImplication of RAF and RKIP genes in urinary bladder cancer
elsevier.coverdisplaydateJune 2011

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