Gene set enrichment analysis of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry in multiple myeloma
Lambrou, George I.
Spandidos, Demetrios A.
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The presence of a dysregulated NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP loop was recently established in metastatic prostate cancer cells and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, its involvement in multiple myeloma (MM) has yet to be investigated. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry in MM and how each gene is correlated with the remaining genes of the loop. Using gene set enrichment analysis and gene neighbours analysis in data received from four datasets included in theMultipleMyeloma Genomics Portal of the Multiple Myeloma Research Consortium, we identified various enriched gene sets associated with each member of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry. In each dataset, the 20 most co-expressed genes with the circuitry genes were isolated subjected to Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment. Among many, we highlighted on FNDC3B, TPD52, BBX, MBNL1 and MFAP2. Many co-expressed genes participated in the regulation of metabolic processes and nucleic acid binding, or were transcription factor binding genes and genes with metallopeptidase activity. The transcription factors FOXO4, GATA binding factor, Sp1 and AP4 most likely affect the expression of the NF- κB/ Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry genes. Computational analysis of various GEO datasets revealed elevated YY1 and RKIP levels in MM vs. the normal plasma cells, as well as elevated RKIP levels in MM vs. normal B lymphocytes. The present study highlights the relationships of the NF- κB/ Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry genes with specific cancer-related gene sets in multiple myeloma.