RKIP: A key regulator in tumor metastasis initiation and resistance to apoptosis: Therapeutic targeting and impact
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RAF-kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a well-established tumor suppressor that is frequently downregulated in a plethora of solid and hematological malignancies. RKIP exerts antimetastatic and pro-apoptotic properties in cancer cells, via modulation of signaling pathways and gene products involved in tumor survival and spread. Here we review the contribution of RKIP in the regulation of early metastatic steps such as epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, and invasion, as well as in tumor sensitivity to conventional therapeutics and immuno-mediated cytotoxicity. We further provide updated justification for targeting RKIP as a strategy to overcome tumor chemo/immuno-resistance and suppress metastasis, through the use of agents able to modulate RKIP expression in cancer cells.