Development and Testing of a Novel Anaesthesia Induction/Ventilation Protocol for Patients With Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction
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BackgroundCardiogenic shock is a life-threatening condition and patients might require rapid sequence induction (RSI) and mechanical ventilation. In this study, we evaluated a new RSI/mechanical ventilation protocol in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. MethodsWe included consecutive adult patients who were transferred to the emergency department. The RSI protocol included 5 phases: preoxygenation, pretreatment, induction/paralysis, intubation, and mechanical ventilation (PPIIM). A posteriori, we selected historical patients managed with standard RSI as a control group. The primary outcome was hemodynamic derangement or hypoxemia from enrollment until intensive care unit (ICU) admission. ResultsWe studied 31 consecutive patients who were intubated using the PPIIM protocol and 22 historical controls. We found significant differences in systolic (85.32 ± 4.23 vs 71.72 ± 7.98 mm Hg; P < 0.0001), diastolic (58.84 ± 5.84 vs 39.05 ± 5.63 mm Hg; P < 0.0001), and mean arterial pressure (67.71 ± 4.90 vs 49.90 ± 5.66 mm Hg; P < 0.0001), as well as in partial pressure of oxygen (85.80 ± 19.82 vs 164.73 ± 43.07 mm Hg; P < 0.0001) between the PPIIM and control group at 5 minutes of automated ventilation. Also, statistically significant differences were observed in diastolic (59.74 ± 4.93 vs 47.86 ± 11.47 mm Hg; P < 0.0001) and mean arterial pressure (68.65 ± 4.10 vs 60.23 ± 11.67 mm Hg; P < 0.0001), as well as in partial pressure of oxygen (119.84 ± 50.57 vs 179.50 ± 42.17 mm Hg; P < 0.0001), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (39.81 ± 10.60 vs 31.00 ± 9.30 mm Hg; P = 0.003) between the 2 groups at ICU admission. Compared with the control group, with PPIIM more patients survived to ICU admission (100% vs 77%) and hospital discharge (71% vs 31.8%), as well as at 90 days (51.6% vs 18.2%), and at 180 days (38.7% vs 13.6%). ConclusionsThe PPIIM protocol allows safe intubation of acute myocardial infarction patients with cardiogenic shock and improves hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters.