Clinical epidemiology, treatment and prognostic factors of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients
Kritsotakis, Evangelos I.
Karageorgos, Spyridon A.
Gikas, Achilleas I.
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Limited data exist regarding prognostic factors and optimal antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). This retrospective cohort study included 93 adult patients who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to XDR-AB in the ICU of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Greece, from October 2012 to April 2015. XDR-AB isolates were mainly susceptible to colistin (93.5%) and tigecycline (25.8%), whereas 6 (6.5%) were pandrug-resistant. Prior to infection, patients had long durations of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay and multiple exposures to antibiotics. Median Charlson co-morbidity and APACHE II scores were 2 and 17, respectively. Mortality at 28 days of infection onset was high (34.4%) despite high rates of in-vitro-active empirical (81.7%) and definitive (90.3%) treatment. Active colistin-based combination therapy (n = 55) and monotherapy (n = 29) groups had similar 28-day mortality (27.6% vs. 30.9%, respectively) and Kaplan–Meier survival estimates over time. In multivariable Cox regression, advanced age (aHR = 1.05 per year increase, 95% CI 1.02–1.09), rapidly fatal underlying disease (aHR = 2.64, 95% CI 0.98–9.17) and APACHE II score (aHR = 1.06 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.99–1.14) were identified as independent predictors of 28-day mortality, but no difference in mortality hazards between the active colistin-based combination therapy and monotherapy groups was produced (aHR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.35–2.38). These results support the use of colistin as a first-line agent against VAP in settings where XDR-AB is endemic, but oppose the introduction of colistin-based combination therapy as standard treatment.