Fungal infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review
Stamatiades, George A.
Petrikkos, Georgios L.
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Background: Despite reports of fungal infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), their clinical and microbiological characteristics remain unknown. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to examine all available evidence regarding fungal infections in patients with IBD. Methods: Systematic search of PubMed (through 27 May 2017) for studies providing data on clinical, microbiological, treatment and outcome data of fungal infections in patients with IBD. The primary study outcome was to record the most common fungal species in patients with IBD. Secondary outcomes were classified into 3 categories: (i) characteristics of fungal infections; (ii) data on IBD and (iii) treatment and outcomes of fungal infections in patients with IBD. Results: Fourteen studies with data on 1524 patients were included in final analysis. The most common fungal infections in patients with IBD were caused by Candida species (903 infections); the most commonly reported site of Candida infection was the gastrointestinal tract. Available evidence shows that most fungal infections occur within 12 months of IBD treatment and within 6 months when anti-TNFa agents are used. Conclusions: This systematic review thoroughly describes fungal infections in patients with IBD and provides important information for the early detection and management of these infections.