Inhibition of breast cancer cell invasion by Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1) silencing is reversed by growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15)
Spyrou, George M.
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Extracellular matrix (ECM)-related adhesion proteins are important in metastasis. Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1), a suppressor of Ras-transformation, is localized to cell–ECM adhesions where it interacts with the Particularly Interesting New Cysteine-Histidine rich protein (PINCH-1), being connected to Integrin Linked Kinase (ILK) and alpha-parvin (PARVA), a direct actin-binding protein. RSU-1 was also found upregulated in metastatic breast cancer (BC) samples and was recently demonstrated to have metastasis-promoting properties. In the present study, we transiently silenced RSU-1 in BC cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. We found that RSU-1 silencing leads to downregulation of Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15), which has been associated with both actin cytoskeleton reorganization and metastasis. RSU-1 silencing also reduced the mRNA expression of PINCH-1 and cell division control protein-42 (Cdc42), while increasing that of ILK and Rac regardless of the presence of GDF-15. However, the downregulation of actin-modulating genes PARVA, RhoA, Rho associated kinase-1 (ROCK-1), and Fascin-1 following RSU-1 depletion was completely reversed by GDF-15 treatment in both cell lines. Moreover, complete rescue of the inhibitory effect of RSU-1 silencing on cell invasion was achieved by GDF-15 treatment, which also correlated with matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. Finally, using a graph clustering approach, we corroborated our findings. This is the first study providing evidence of a functional association between RSU-1 and GDF-15 with regard to cancer cell invasion.