Relationship between individual cardiovascular risk factors and localization of coronary atherosclerotic lesions
Lekakis, John P.
Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th
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Objective: The localization of coronary atherosclerotic lesions in patients with coronary artery disease is important. We investigated the relationship between individual cardiovascular risk factors and lesion localization in the coronary arteries. Methods: We studied 200 consecutive patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who were referred for coronary angiography because of chest pain. We assessed the following cardiovascular risk factors: male gender, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, arterial hypertension, positive family history, and diabetes. We evaluated atherosclerotic lesions creating a stenosis ≥ 50% in the 3 coronary arteries and lesions creating a stenosis ≥ 30% in the left main stem. Results: Of the 200 study patients, 155 (78%) showed at least 1 coronary artery lesion with a luminal stenosis ≥ 50%. With an increasing number of risk factors, there was a significant progressive increase of diseased arteries (P < .001). There was a differential association between individual risk factors and lesions in the 3 coronary arteries. Male gender, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were predictors of lesions in the left anterior descending artery (odds ratios 2.365, 2.510, and 1.998, respectively). Predictors of left circumflex artery lesions were male gender, smoking, and diabetes (odds ratios 2.581, 1.913, and 2.280, respectively), whereas the only independent predictor of right coronary artery lesions was male gender (odds ratio 2.995). Diabetes was also significantly associated with lesions in the diagonal branches of the left anterior descending artery and the marginal branches of the left circumflex artery. Conclusion: Individual cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the localization of atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary circulation.