The role of fibroblast growth factors and their receptors in gliomas: The mutations involved
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The central nervous system (CNS) comprises of neurons, which are responsible for impulse transmission, and glial cells, which surround neurons providing protection and nutrition. Glial cells are categorized into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells, and ependymal cells. Tumors forming from glial cells are called gliomas, and they are classified accordingly into astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas. Gliomas are characterized by high mortality rates and degree of malignancy, heterogeneity, and resistance to treatment. Among the molecular players implicated in glioma pathogenesis are members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily as well as their receptors (FGFRs). In the present study, we provide a review of the literature on the role of FGFs and FGFRs in glioma pathogenesis. We also demonstrate that FGFs, and particularly FGF1 and FGF2, bear a variety of mutations in gliomas, while FGFRs are also crucially involved. In fact, several studies show that in gliomas, FGFRs bear mutations, mainly in the tyrosine kinase domains. Specifically, it appears that FGFR1-TACC1 and FGFR3-TACC3 fusions are common in these receptors. A better understanding of the mutations and the molecular players involved in glioma formation will benefit the scientific community, leading to the development of more effective and innovative therapeutic approaches.